A Timeline of Mechanical Keyboard Development

November 8, 2023

The mechanical keyboard is the consummation of tradition and innovation. From its origins in early typewriters to the modern computer keyboards on our desks, this timeline takes you through the evolution of mechanical keyboards. Let's explore the history, key milestones, and advancements that have shaped these modern keyboards into the versatile and customizable tools we use today.

Definition of a Mechanical Keyboard

Put simply, a mechanical keyboard is a keyboard that uses separate mechanical switches under each key. This is different from the standard computer keyboard, which uses rubber domes or membrane switches. These mechanical switches provide several sensory and/or auditory feedback, which have contributed to the widespread popularity of mechanical keyboards among typists, gamers, and keyboard enthusiasts. 

How Did Mechanical Keyboards Evolve Over Time?

The history of mechanical keyboards is an interesting one. It's a fine example of how seemingly obsolete technology became refined over time. As Ms. Moneypenny retorted to Bond, "Sometimes, the old ways are the best."

The Typewriter

  • Early concept of mechanical input (19th century): The concept of mechanical input devices laid the foundation for mechanical keyboards. Christopher Sholes' invention of the first typewriter in the 1860s marked the first use of mechanical keys.

Early Mechanical Keyboards (19th to Mid-20th Century)

  • Early typewriters (Late 19th Century): The earliest mechanical keyboards were integral to typewriters with keys directly connected to mechanical linkages.
  • Development of typewriter switches (Late 19th to early 20th century): Typewriters evolved with more refined key mechanisms and switch designs, offering the first experience of mechanical keypresses.
  • Influence of early designs (Mid-20th century): Innovations in typewriter switches influenced the keyboard designs of early computers and laid the groundwork for modern mechanical keyboards.

Rise of the Personal Computer (1970s to 1980s)

  • Introduction of personal computers (1970s): The birth of personal computing brought forth the first computer keyboards, which transitioned from typewriter-inspired designs to dedicated computer input devices.
  • Key switches in early computer keyboards (Late 1970s to early 1980s): Early computer keyboards featured various switch types including mechanical switches like the Alps and IBM buckling spring switches.

The Mechanical Switch (1983)

  • Introduction of Cherry MX Switches (1983): The Cherry MX switch, known for its reliability and distinct feel, was introduced. It became the benchmark for mechanical key switches.
  • Variety within Cherry MX family: Cherry's mechanical switches include various types such as Cherry MX Blue, Red, Brown, and Black, each offering different tactile and audible characteristics.
  • Popularity and impact: Cherry MX switches gained widespread popularity among enthusiasts, marking a significant shift towards mechanical keyboards.
  • Clones and variations: The success of Cherry MX switches led to the development of clone switches from other manufacturers with similar switch designs.

Evolution of Mechanical Keyboards (1990s to 2000s)

  • Introduction of specialized designs (1990s): The 1990s saw the introduction of ergonomic and specialized keyboard designs, catering to different user needs.
  • Membrane vs. mechanical keyboards (Late 20th Century): A dichotomy emerged between membrane and mechanical keyboards, with mechanical keyboards favored for their tactile feedback and durability.
  • Keycap materials and customization: Mechanical keyboards offered removable keycaps made of various materials, enabling customization and improved aesthetics.
  • Gaming keyboards: The late 1990s saw the emergence of gaming keyboards, with features optimized for gaming, such as anti-ghosting and customizable macros. The keyboard community gladly welcomed these keyboards.

The Mechanical Keyboard Renaissance (2010s)

  • Rise of enthusiasts (Early 2010s): Mechanical keyboard enthusiasts, driven by online communities, grew rapidly, contributing to the resurgence of mechanical keyboards.
  • Crowdfunding campaigns: Platforms like Kickstarter witnessed successful crowdfunding campaigns for innovative mechanical keyboard projects, enabling new players to enter the market.
  • Introduction of new switch types: Beyond Cherry MX, new switch types like Romer-G and Razer switches gained prominence.
  • Aesthetics and materials: Manufacturers began paying increased attention to aesthetics, offering RGB backlighting, premium materials, and customized keycap sets.

Modern Mechanical Keyboards (2020s and Beyond)

  • Wireless and compact keyboards (2020s): Modern mechanical keyboards introduced wireless and compact designs, catering to users looking for portability and cable-free setups.
  • Innovation in switch technology: Ongoing innovation in switch technology continues to refine users' typing and gaming experience.

What is the role of IBM in the popularity of mechanical keyboards?

IBM made the first keyboard with mechanical switches designed specifically for early computers. This was the IBM Model F keyboard, introduced in 1981. Utilizing what is known as capacitive buckling spring switches, these switches became a hallmark of IBM's keyboard designs. The capacitive buckling spring keyboard switches produced a tactile and audible feedback mechanism that many users found comfortable and satisfying.

The IBM Model F keyboard and its buckling spring switch became predecessors to the more widely recognized IBM Model M keyboard introduced in 1984. These improved switches were popular for their distinctive "clicky" sound and tactile feel. The Model M keyboard played a significant role in popularizing mechanical keyboards in the early computer era.

Notable Advancements in Modern Mechanical Computer Keyboards?

These advancements reflect the ongoing evolution of mechanical keyboards to meet the changing needs and preferences of computer users. As technology continues to advance, we can expect even more innovations in the mechanical keyboard scene.

  1. Wireless connectivity: Many modern mechanical keyboards offer wireless connectivity options, such as Bluetooth or 2.4GHz wireless, providing greater flexibility and a clutter-free desk setup.
  2. Hot-swappable key switches: Hot-swappable keyboards allow users to change key switches without soldering, making it easy to experiment with different switch types or replace switches without the need for soldering equipment.
  3. Customizable RGB backlighting: Many modern mechanical keyboards feature customizable RGB backlighting with a wide range of lighting effects, allowing users to personalize the keyboard's appearance.
  4. Analog input: Some mechanical keyboards now incorporate analog input technology, which allows for variable input, making them suitable for gaming applications where keypress sensitivity matters.
  5. Programmable keys: Mechanical keyboards often come with programmable macro keys, allowing users to assign complex functions to a single keypress, which is useful for gaming or productivity tasks.
  6. Dedicated media controls: Many modern mechanical keyboards include dedicated media control keys for adjusting volume, playback, and other multimedia functions without needing to switch applications or use additional software.
  7. USB and audio pass-through: Some keyboards feature built-in USB and audio pass-through ports, allowing users to connect peripherals or headsets directly through the keyboard.
  8. Eco-friendly materials: There's a growing emphasis on using eco-friendly and sustainable materials in keyboard construction, catering to users who prioritize environmental concerns.
  9. Software integration: Mechanical keyboard manufacturers often provide software that enables users to customize key functions, lighting, and macros. This software integration has become more sophisticated and user-friendly.
  10. Dynamic keycaps: Some keyboards incorporate dynamic keycaps with embedded e-ink displays or customizable OLED screens, offering dynamic key legends and information.
  11. Smart features: Some modern mechanical keyboards come with smart features such as voice assistants, integration with virtual assistants like Amazon Alexa or Google Assistant, and cloud-based settings storage.


The journey of mechanical keyboards from their humble beginnings as typewriter-inspired input devices to the customizable and advanced peripherals we know today is fascinating. These keyboards have undergone remarkable transformations, incorporating innovative switch technologies, customizable features, and more. With even more exciting advancements, the future of mechanical keyboards is bright.

Chris Greiner, a Mechanical Keyboard specialist, boasts a solid educational background with dual bachelor's degrees in Computer Science and Business Management from Lewis University. His additional certification in Mechanical Keyboard Design showcases his dedication to staying on the forefront of keyboard technology. Chris primarily writes for keyboard enthusiasts and has been featured on platforms like Jestik, solidifying his reputation as a thought leader in the mechanical keyboard community.
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